CMOS imagers

Packaged

CMOS sensor

CMOS sensor-

based consumer camera.

Large-format

CMOS sensor

For the very best sensitivity across a wide range of visible wavelengths and the very lowest dark current CCDs are still very hard to beat. They are, however, relatively slow to read out and restricted to wavelengths below 1micron. With CMOS, frame rates of >1kHz are possible and if advanced techniques such as Hybridization are used , the sensitive wavelength range can be extended up to > 20 microns. Whereas CCDs rely on the physical transport of photo-charge across the image area towards  read-out amplifiers positioned around the edge of the device, CMOS imagers have amplifiers within each pixel. This allows many new modes of operation not available with a CCD.  A further advantage is that CMOS can be fabricated in the same foundries used to produce standard integrated circuits which can reduce the cost considerably. Some key CMOS-related concepts are explained below.

3T versus 4T pixels

CMOS Architecture

Manufacturers and

designers of CMOS

sensors:

AMS

Pinned Photodiodes

Removing reset noise

IR-sensitive scientific

CMOS sensor

Hybridisation

1/f noise